fbpx Australian Parental Supply of Alcohol Longitudinal Study (APSALS) | NDARC - National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre

Australian Parental Supply of Alcohol Longitudinal Study (APSALS)

image - 1338943100 Shadow Man Drinking Green Beer Bottle Square
Date Commenced:
09/2010
Expected Date of Completion:
12/2022
Project Supporters:

Australian Research Council - Discovery Project Australian Rotary Health Mental Health Research Grant Australian Rotary Health Whitcroft Family PhD Scholarship Foundation for Alcohol Research & Education Australian Federal Government Australian Postgraduate Award 2018-2022
National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grant 2018-2022

Drug Type:
Project Members: 
image - Richard Mattick
Honorary Professor
Ph 02 9385 0333
image - IMG 0009 1
Senior Research Officer
Ph 02 93850111
image - Amy Peacock
Program Lead, Drug Trends
Ph +61 (2) 9385 0333
image - Phillip Clare
Adjunct Lecturer
Ph 02 9385 0333
image - Wing See Yuen
Research Fellow
Ph +61 (2) 9385 0333
image - Veronica Boland 0
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Ph 02 9385 0333
Miss Clara Isabel De Torres
Research Assistant
image - Emily Picture 2
Consultancies and Vendor Staff
Ph 02 9385 0333
Mr Cooper Jackson
Casual Academic
Project Main Description: 

Overview of APSALS - Flyer.

Parents can positively influence their children's alcohol use. One strategy they use is to provide their children with alcohol, believing it is the best way to teach their children how to drink responsibly. The impact of parental supply is not well understood and may be unintentionally harmful. This study will research the consequences of parental supply within the broader context of parent, child and peer relationships. It will help to determine how parental supply influences the different patterns of adolescent alcohol consumption over time, providing essential information to help parents prevent alcohol misuse in their children. Parents can play a pivotal role in prevention of alcohol misuse, but at present we don't know exactly how.

Project Collaborators: External: 

Professor Jakob Najman
Queensland Alcohol & Drug Research and Education Centre, University of Queensland

Associate Professor Kypros Kypri
School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle

Dr Nyanda McBride
National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University

Associate Professor Raimondo Bruno
School of Psychology, University of Tasmania

Dr Delyse Hutchinson
School of Psychology, Deakin University

Associate Professor John Horwood
University of Otago, New Zealand

Professor Jim McCambridge
University of York, UK

Associate Professor Tim Slade
The Matilda Centre, University of Sydney

Dr Monika Wadolowski
School of Women's & Children's Health, University of New South Wales

Rationale: 

Binge drinking among adolescents is currently being touted as a recent epidemic, but it is a long-standing problem which needs to be addressed. Australian parents are prepared to make a significant contribution; they believe that it is their role to teach their children when, where and how to drink. The impact of parental supply is not well understood. This study will research the consequences of parental supply within the broader context of parent, child and peer relationships. It will help to determine how parental supply influences the different patterns of adolescent alcohol consumption over time, providing essential information to help parents prevent alcohol misuse in their children. Parents can play a pivotal role in prevention of alcohol misuse, but at present we don’t know exactly how.

Aims: 

This study is investigating the impact of parental supply of alcohol on drinking trajectories in Australian adolescents, including how parental supply of alcohol relates to the acceleration or deceleration of harmful drinking trajectories, and how other related factors may mediate and moderate the relationship. 

Design and Method: 

Using a longitudinal design, 1,977 families were recruited from Grade 7 classes across schools in NSW, TAS and WA with 1927 eligible families agreeing to participate. Families have thus far been followed up annually since 2010. Surveys address areas related to quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption (including supply, supervision and context of supply and consumption), parental modelling of alcohol use, family and peer relationships, family history of alcohol-related problems, alcohol-specific rules and access, and child mental health and behavioural problems. Latent growth curve modelling will be used to analyse the longitudinal data.

Progress/Update: 

As of February 2022, we have completed data collection for the 11th annual wave of surveys. Due to the impact of COVID-19 in Australia, we conducted an additional survey from May-June 2020 examining changes in alcohol use and mental health during the pandemic. From October 2020 to January 2022, we also conducted structured phone interviews with participants using the World Health Organization’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). This interview assesses a range of mental health and substance-related issues, including depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorder.

Analyses of data collected throughout the study have been presented at national and international conferences and 19 peer-reviewed papers have been published. Further analyses are ongoing with a range of papers being drafted for other peer-review publications. Our cohort has been established as an international landmark study, allowing us to answer the important question of how parental supply of alcohol in early adolescence impacts upon alcohol use and harms in late adolescence and early adulthood.

Findings: 

So far, we have found that any supply of alcohol to adolescents increases the chance of alcohol-related harm in later adolescence and early adulthood. Although peer supply of alcohol tends to increase the risk of harms more than parent supply of alcohol, parental supply still increases the risk of harm. These harms include binge drinking, social problems, injuries, and alcohol use disorders.

Output: 

Peer-reviewed publications:

Yuen, W.S., Bruno, R., Chan, G., McCambridge, J., Slade, T., Clare, P., Aiken, A., Kypri., K., Hutchinson, D., McBride, N., Boland, V., Upton, E., Farrell, M., Mattick, R.P., Peacock, A. (2021) The experience of physiological and psychosocial alcohol-related harms across adolescence and its association with alcohol use disorder in early adulthood: A prospective cohort study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 45(12):2518-2527. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.14726

Clare, P. J., Aiken, A., Yuen, W. S., Upton, E., Kypri, K., Degenhardt, L., Bruno, R., McCambridge, J., McBride, N., Hutchinson, D., Slade, T., Mattick, R., and Peacock, A. (2021) Alcohol use among young Australian adults in May–June 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic: a prospective cohort study. Addiction, 116(12):3398-3407. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15599 

Upton, E., Clare P.J., Aiken, A., Boland, V.C., De Torres, C., Bruno, R., Hutchinson, D., Kypri, K., Mattick, R., McBride, N., Peacock, A. (2021). Changes in mental health and help-seeking among young Australian adults during the COVID-19 pandemic: a prospective cohort study. Psychological Medicine; 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291721001963

Najman, J.M., Clare, P.J., McBride, N., Kypri, K., Aiken, A., Wadolowski, M., Hutchinson, D., Slade, T., Bruno, R., Vogl, L., Degenhardt, L., Mattick, R.P (2021). Gender Differences in the Supply of Alcohol to Adolescent Daughters and Sons. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 47(4):508-520. https://doi.org/10.1080/00952990.2021.1927066

Yuen, W.S., Chan, G., Bruno, R., Clare, P., Aiken, A., Mattick, R.P., Farrell, M., Kypri., K., Slade, T., Hutchinson, D., McBride, N., Boland, V., Peacock, A. (2021). Trajectories of alcohol-induced blackouts in adolescence: early risk factors and alcohol use disorder outcomes in early adulthood. Addiction, 116(8):2039-2048. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15415 

Aiken, A., Clare, P.J., Boland, V.C., Degenhardt, L., Yuen, W.S., Hutchinson, D., Najman, J., McCambridge, J., Slade, T., McBride, N., De Torres, C., Wadolowski, M., Bruno, R., Kypri, K., Mattick, R.P., Peacock, A. (2020). Parental supply of sips and whole drinks of alcohol to adolescents and associations with binge drinking and alcohol-related harms: A prospective cohort study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 1;215:108204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108204

Boland, V.C., Clare, P.J., Yuen, W.S., Peacock, A., Aiken, A., Wadolowski, M., Hutchinson, D., Najman, J., Slade, T., Bruno, R., McBride, N., Degenhardt, L., Kypri, K., Mattick, R. P. (2020). The association between parental supply of alcohol and supply from other sources to young people: a prospective cohort. Addiction, 115(11), 2140-2147. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15033

Yuen, W.S., Chan, G., Bruno, R., Clare, P., Mattick, R., Aiken, A., Boland, V., McBride, N., McCambridge, J., Slade, T., Kypri, K., Horwood, J., Hutchinson, D., Najman, J., De Torres, C., Peacock, A. (2020). Adolescent Alcohol Use Trajectories: A Prospective Study of Risk Factors and Adulthood Outcomes. Pediatrics, 146(4):e20200440. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-0440

Clare; P.; Dobbins; T.; Bruno; R.; Peacock; A.; Boland; V.; Yuen; W.S.; Aiken; A.; Degenhardt; L.; Kypri; K.; Slade; T.; Hutchinson; D.; Najman; J.; McBride; N.; McCambridge; J.; Mattick; R.P. (2020). The overall effect of parental supply of alcohol across adolescence on alcohol-related harms in early adulthood – a prospective cohort study. Addiction, 115(10): 1833-1843. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15005

Clare; P.; Aiken; A.; Yuen; W.S.; Peacock; A.; Boland; V.; Wadolowski; Monika; Hutchinson; D.; Najman; J.; Slade; T.; Bruno; R.; McBride; N.; Degenhardt; L.; Kypri; K.; Mattick; R.P. (2019). Parental supply of alcohol as a predictor of adolescent alcohol consumption patterns: A prospective cohort study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 204:107529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.06.031

Sharmin, S., Kypri, K., Wadolowski, M., Raimondo, R., Khanam, M., Aiken, A., Hutchinson, D., Najman, J., Slade, T., McBride, N., Attia, J., Palazzi, K., Oldmeadow, C., Mattick, R.P. (2019). Parent hazardous drinking and their children's alcohol use in early and mid-adolescence: Prospective cohort study. European Journal of Public Health, ckz029. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckz029

Sharmin, S., Kypri, K., Wadolowski, M., Raimondo, B., Khanam, M., Aiken, A., Hutchinson, D., Najman, J., Slade, T., McBride, N., Attia, J., Mattick, R.P. (2018). Parent characteristics associated with approval of their children drinking alcohol from ages 13 to 16 years: Prospective cohort study. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 42(4):347-353. https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12811

Mattick, R.P., Clare, P.J., Aiken, A., Wadolowski, M., Hutchinson, D., Najman, J., Slade, T., Bruno, R., McBride, N., Kypri, K., Vogl, L., Degenhardt, L. (2018). Association of parental supply of alcohol with adolescent drinking, alcohol-related harms, and alcohol use disorder symptoms: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet Public Health, 3(2): e64-e71. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(17)30240-2

Aiken, A., Clare, P.J., Wadolowski, M., Hutchinson, D., Najman, J.M., Slade, T., Bruno, R., McBride, N., Kypri, K., Mattick, R.P. (2018). Age of Alcohol Initiation and Progression to Binge Drinking in Adolescence: A Prospective Cohort Study. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 42(1): 100-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.13525

Mattick, R.P., Wadolowski, M., Aiken, A., Clare, P.J., Hutchinson, D., Najman, J., Slade, T., Bruno, R., McBride, N., Degenhardt, L., Kypri, K. (2017). Parental supply of alcohol and alcohol consumption in adolescence: prospective cohort study. Psychological Medicine 47(2): 267-78. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291716002373

Aiken, A., Wadolowski, M., Bruno, R., Najman, J., Kypri, K., Slade, T., Hutchinson, D., McBride, N., Mattick, R.P. (2017). Cohort Profile: The Australian Parental Supply of Alcohol Longitudinal Study (APSALS). International Journal of Epidemiology, 46(2): e6. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyv051

Wadolowski, M., Hutchinson, D., Bruno, R., Aiken, A., Najman, J.M., Kypri, K., Slade, T., McBride, N., Mattick, R.P. (2016). Parents Who Supply Sips of Alcohol in Early Adolescence: A Prospective Study of Risk Factors. Pediatrics, 137(3): e20152611. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-2611

Wadolowski, M., Hutchinson, D., Bruno, R., Aiken, A., Clare, P., Slade, T., Najman, J., Kypri, K., McBride, N., Mattick, R.P. (2015). Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: Are Sipping and Drinking Distinct? Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 39(9): 1805-13. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.12826

Wadolowski, M., Bruno, R., Aiken, A., Stone, C., Najman, J., Kypri, K., Slade, T., Hutchinson, D., McBride, N., Mattick, R.P. (2015). Sipping, drinking, and early adolescent alcohol consumption: a cautionary note. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 39(2): 350-4. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.12613

Presentations (past 2 years):

Clare, P. J. Mental health and alcohol use in young Australians during COVID-19. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre Webinar, 2021. https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/resource/mental-health-and-alcohol-use-young-australians-during-covid-19

Clare, P. J., Upton, E., Aiken, A., Yuen, W. S., De Torres, C., Boland, V., Kypri, K., Degenhardt, L., Bruno, R., McCambridge, J., McBride, N., Hutchinson, D., Slade, T., Mattick, R., and Peacock, A. Changes in alcohol use and mental health among young Australian adults during the COVID-19 pandemic: a prospective cohort study. Paper presented at the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs Conference, 2021.

Aiken, A., Chan, G.C.K., Yuen, W.S., Clare, P.J., Boland, V., Degenhardt, L., Hutchinson, D., Najman, J.M., McCambridge, J., Horwood, J., Slade, T., McBride, N., De Torres, C., Wadolowski, M., Bruno, R., Kypri, K., Mattick, R.P., Peacock, A. Trajectories of parental and peer supply of alcohol across adolescence and associations with later alcohol drinking and harms: A prospective cohort study. Paper presented at the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs Conference, 2021.

Yuen, W.S., Bruno, R., Chan, G.C.K., Clare, P.J., Slade, T., McCambridge, J., Aiken, A., Kypri, K., Hutchinson, D., McBride, N., Boland, V., Upton, E., Farrell, M., Mattick, R.P., Peacock, A. Transitions Across Physiological and Psychosocial Alcohol-related Harms in Adolescence. Paper presented at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Symposium, Sydney, 2020.

Yuen, W.S., Bruno, R., Chan, G.C.K., Clare, P.J., Slade, T., McCambridge, J., Aiken, A., Kypri, K., Hutchinson, D., McBride, N., Boland, V., Upton, E., Farrell, M., Mattick, R.P., Peacock, A. Transitions Across Physiological and Psychosocial Alcohol-related Harms in Adolescence. Paper presented at the APSAD EMCR Virtual Program, 2020.

Upton, E., Clare, P.J., Aiken, A., Boland, V., De Torres, C., Mattick, R., Yuen, W. S., Bruno, R., Kypri, K., Degenhardt, L., Horwood, J., Hutchinson, D., McCambridge, J., McBride, N., Najman, J., Slade, T., Wadolowski, M., Peacock, A. Changes in mental health and help-seeking among young Australian adults during the COVID-19 pandemic: a prospective cohort study. Paper presented at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Symposium, Sydney, 2020.

Peacock, A., de Torres, C., Clare, P., Yuen, W.S., Aiken, A. Ten years of the Australian Parental Supply of Alcohol Longitudinal Study (APSALS). National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre Webinar, 2020. https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/resource/ten-years-australian-parental-supply-alcohol-longitudinal-study-apsals

Clare, P.J., Aiken, A., Yuen, W.S., Upton, E., Kypri, K., Degenhardt, L., Bruno, R., McCambridge, J., McBride, N., Hutchinson, D., Slade, T., Mattick, R.P., Peacock, A. The impact of COVID-19 on consumption of alcohol among young people in Australia. Paper presented at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Symposium, Sydney, 2020.

Drug Type: 
Project Status: 
Current