The aim of this project was to collate data for all countries on the following variables; imprisonment rates, HIV prevalence among male, female, PWIDs, MSM, sex workers and transgender prisoners, HIV incidence and transmission in prison AIDS mortality in prison and the provision of eight HIV pro
Criminal justice system
Most Australian states and territories have adopted drug trafficking thresholds which specify quantities of drugs, over which it is presumed an offender has committed an offence of ‘drug trafficking’, rather than ‘possession for personal use’.
Legal threshold quantities for drug trafficking are used most Australian jurisdictions to define the quantity over which possession of an illicit drug is deemed “trafficking” versus “personal use” (Hughes, 2011).
It has been long recognised that illicit drug traffickers can and do trade in multiple drugs.
Most Australian states and territories have adopted legal thresholds for drug trafficking, over which possession of an illicit drug is deemed ‘trafficking’ as opposed to ‘personal use’.
Prisoners are a marginalised group placing considerable costs on society. They experience very high rates of drug dependence, health problems and premature mortality. Without intervention they are highly likely to come into further health risk.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent among incarcerated people around the world, largely due to the high concentration in correctional settings of people who inject drugs.
There is little detailed information about the Australian cannabis market, including the chemical characteristics of the locally available cannabis product.
There is a growing body of research evidence demonstrating the impact of a range of pre-sentence diversion options at engaging substance misusing defendants in treatment, and reducing illicit drug use and ‘related’ offending in both Australian and British contexts.
Within both the Australian and international literature, the association between substance use and criminal activity is well established. The nature of the relationship, however, is still widely debated with no overall consensus being reached on how crime and substance use influence each other.